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Cryptography Current Trends 2016 Computer Science Education IT 

Cryptography Current Trends 2016

Current Trend of Cryptography

The Two Fish Algorithm


Tow Fish algorithm was designed by Bruce Schneider, John Kelsey, Doug Whiting, David Wagner, Chris Hall, and Niels Ferguson.  It is similar to the AES standard and Serpent. It uses a block size of 128 bits and has a key size of up to 256 bits.


Working Methodology of Tow Fish Algorithm


In step one the plain text is split into four 32-bit words then this word is XOR with key. Here six round of encryption is exist when encryption is performed. Duration of each round two words shift on  left and used as inputs to the g function in the g function consists of four byte-wide key-dependent S-boxes, followed by a linear mixing step based on a Maximum Distance Separable (MDS) matrix.



Results of the two g functions are combined using a Pseudo-Hadamard Transform (PHT). PHT is defined as a = a + b mod 232, and b = a + 2b mod 232, where a and b are given two inputs. Then, the two keywords are added. These two results are then XOR into the words on the right (one of which is rotated left by 1 bit first, the other is rotated right afterwards). The left and right halves are then swapped for the next round. After all the rounds are executed, the swap of the last operation is reversed, and the four words are XOR  with four more keywords to produce the cipher text. The figure 01 shows all the steps of Tow Fish algorithm. Now a days this algorithm is used for encryption and desperation

Quantum Cryptography

Quantum key distribution (QKD), in which two different users used single photons this photon is randomly splitting and shows the stats 1 and 0. And transmit a series of random number that are used as key in cryptographic communications. This string of numbers becomes a quantum key that encryptand decrypt a messages and that message sent by using any communication channels. Photons cannot interrupted without destroyed the photons. QKD is the most powerful data encryption scheme now a days this technique is used for encryption and decryption the messages.This technique is discovered early 20th century.

Elliptic Curve Cryptography

Most powerful and least understood type of cryptography is Elliptic curve cryptography (ECC). ECC is broader used today. There are so many websites that are used ECC for secure everything from other users by using HTTPS connection. The big question is that how data is passes between data centers. Its vary valuable for end users “How data is pass under some technology? Is any security is exist behind screen? Is this security is trustable? ” Elliptical curve cryptography (ECC) is a public key encryption technique based on elliptic curve theory that can be used to create faster, smaller, and more efficient cryptographic keys. ECC generates keys through the properties of the elliptic curve equation instead of the traditional method of generation as the product of very large prime numbers. ECC helps to establish equivalent security with lower computing power and battery resource usage.

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  • danish_dani94

    Quantum cryptography is quite interesting topic.

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